Twelve Month’s Of Islam
The Islamic religious year is known as Hijri year. It began with the Hijrah of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) from Makkah to Madinah in the year 622 of the common era. The twelve-month year is based on a purely lunar cycle of 354 days. Thus Islamic dates have no fixed relation to the seasons of the 365 day solar year. Over the course of years all Islamic events may occur in spring, summer, autumn or winter.
1. Muharram: is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four months of the year in which fighting is prohibited. Since the Islamic calendar is lunar, Muharram moves from year to year when compared with the Gregorian calendar. This Month is also associated with the martyrdom of Prophet Muhammad’s grandson Hussain ibn Ali. He was killed in the battle of Karbala’ on the 10th of Muharram in 61 A.H. (October 10, 680 C.E.). It is a day of sadness for all Muslims.
2. Safar: is the second month of the Islamic calendar. Literal meaning of Safar is empty. During this month the houses used to be empty and deserted because the ban on going to war in the month of Muharram came to an end and everyone proceeded towards the battlefield. Safar also means to be yellow. When the names of the months were being given it was the season of autumn and the leaves of the trees were yellow. Many people have erroneous beliefs regarding this month i.e. it is a month of misfortune and calamities. The teachings of Allah Ta'ala and His Most Beloved Rasool (SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam) gives us clear guidelines on such incorrect beliefs.
Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) says in the Qur'an
"No misfortune befalls except by Allah’s command..." [Surah Tagabun, Verse 11]
These erroneous beliefs have also been condemned in the
context of the following Ahadith:
There is no superstitious owl, bird, no star-promising rain, no bad omen in the month of Safar. [Sahih Bukhari, Hadith 5707]
There is no bad omen in the month of Safar and no Ghouls (evil spirits). [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 2222]
The above Ahadith clearly refutes all incorrect beliefs and superstitions regarding the month of Safar. These incorrect beliefs flow from the pre-Islamic period of Jahiliyyah .
The Month of Safar during the Days of Ignorance:
The Muhaddithin have recorded many of the superstitions harboured by the Arabs during the Days of Ignorance. A few are mentioned below:
1. The pre-Islamic Arabs believed Safar to be a snake which lives in the stomach of a human being and when hungry, bites the person. This is the discomfort one experiences when gripped by the pangs of hunger.
2. Some said Safar are worms which originate in the liver and ribs due to which the colour of the person becomes yellow, a condition we know today as jaundice.
3. According to some, the month of Safar flanked by Muharram and Rabi al Awwal is full of calamities and misfortune.
With the advent of Islam and the teachings of Sayyadina Rasoolullah (SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam), all evil and incorrect beliefs common in pre-Islamic times were discarded.
Today too, there are some Muslims who hold incorrect
beliefs regarding the month of Safar.
1. A nikah performed in this month would not be successful.
2. This month is full of misfortune and calamities.
3. To commence any important venture, business etc. during this month will bring bad luck.
4. The first to the thirteenth of Safar is ill-fortune and evil.
5. The person who distributes food or money on the 13th of Safar will be saved from its ill-fortune.
6. To celebrate the last Wednesday of Safar and regard it as a holiday.
What to do:
1. To shun all types of erroneous beliefs regarding the blessed month of Safar.
2. To understand that the most unfortunate person is he who disobeys Allah Ta'ala's commandments e.g. does not perform the five daily salaah etc. It is narrated in a hadith that Rasoolullah (SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam) said: "Pray, 0 Allah! Cause not anyone of us to be a wretched destitute." He then asked: "Do you know who is a wretched destitute?" Upon the request of the Sahabah (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhum) he replied, "A wretched destitute is he who neglects his salaat."
3. We should understand that all conditions which befalls us, good or bad, favourable, or unfavourable are from Allah Ta'ala, (as a result of our actions). Allah Ta'ala says: " Whatever misfortune befalls you, it is due to the things your hands have wrought, and He forgives many a sin." (Surah 42 - Verse 30).
This can also be confirmed by the following Hadith:
Sayyadina Jabir (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) has said that, "I have heard Sayyadina Rasoolullah (SallAllaho Alaihi wa Sallam) saying, the descending of illness and evil superstition befalling in the month of Safar is untrue."
3. Rabi - ul – Awwal: is the third month in the Islamic calendar and First month of spring. It seems it was spring time when the name was given.Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alayhe Wasallam was born on the twelfth of this month, and Sunni Muslims celebrate the Mawlid on this day.
4. Rabi - ul - Aakhir or Rabi’ al-Thani: is the fourth month in the Islamic Calendar.The name literally means ‘the last month of spring'.
5. Jama dil Awwal or Jumada al-awwal: is the fifth month in the Islamic calendar. We can also find the alternative spelling Jumada al-Ula. The origin of the word is as follows: the word Jumda, from which the name of the month is derived, is used to denote dry parched land: land devoid of rain, and hence denote the dry months
6. Jama dil Aakhir or Jumada al-thani: is the sixth month in the Islamic Calendar. It is also known as Jumaada-ul-Akhir and Jumada-l-Akhra. This is the sixth month of the islamic calendar. The origin of the word is as follows: the word Jumda, from which the name of the month is derived, is used to denote dry parched land: land devoid of rain, and hence denote the dry months
7. Rajjab: is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. The lexical definition of Rajaba is "to respect", which is where the word Rajab has been derived from. Rajab denotes ‘the honoured month’. This month was held in great esteem by the pagan Arabs and like Muharram it was a month during which fighting was forbidden.
8. Shaaban: is the eighth month of the Islamic calendar. This is the month of ‘separation’, so called because the pagan Arabs used to disperse in search of water. On the fifteenth night of this month falls the Shab-i-Barat: ‘The Night of Records’.
With the Arrival of the Shaban moon numerous blessings are showered upon us. Just as the initiation of rainfall begins with "pitter patter" such blessings reach us in the same accord and fashion.
With the Beginning of Shaban blessings are initiated which progressively escalate so that by mid-Shaban the blessings have reached a considerable amount and finally such blessings reached a considerable amount and finally such blessings reach their peak by the end of Ramadan.
For example just as a farmer prepares for a fruitful harvest by harrowing his acreage so that the soil may readily retain water, in contrast our souls are geared by the presence of such blessings in Shaban effectively preparing us for a fruitful and completely advantageous Ramadan.
Our Holy Prophet has said, "Shaban is my month and Ramadan the month of Allah Ta'aalaa." (Daylami)
9. Ramadan: The word Ramadan is derived from the word ramd "to burn". Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam. The month is spent fasting during the daylight hours from dawn to dusk. The name came from the time before the Islamic calendar, when the month of Ramadan fell in the summer. Fasting during this month is often thought to figuratively burn away all sins. Muslims believe that the Qur'an was sent down to the earth during this month. Furthermore, Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alayhe Wasallam told his followers that the gates of Heaven would be open all the month and the gates of Hell would be closed. The first day of the next month is spent in celebrations and is observed as the ‘Festival of Breaking Fast’ or `Eid ul-Fitr.
Derived from "RAMADHA", literally means "intense
heat". The possible reasons for this meaning:
1. When the Islamic months were enforced the month of fasting coincided with the summer months of intense heat.
2. The second reason which has been mentioned is that due to fasting the temperature within the stomach increases, again the element of heat is a factor behind the actual naming of RAMADAN.
3. It has also been said that "RAMADHAA" is one of the names of Allah Ta'ala. If that is the case then the month has acquired the name due to the fact that Allah Ta'ala burns away accumulated sins and eliminates then from the list of unlawful deeds. Once again the burning sins cannonades "HEAT". However. it should be acknowledged that this reasoning is not wholly reliable.
Hadhrat Salmaan (Radi Allahu Ta'ala Anhu) reports that on the last day of Sha'baan the Messenger of Allah Ta'ala addressed then and said, "Oh people, there comes before you now a great month, a most blessed month in which lies a night more greater in virtue than 1,000 months; (LAYLATUL-QADR). It is a month in which each day should be observed by fasting, this has been made obligatory by the Almighty Allah."
10. Shawaal: is the tenth month on the Lunar Islamic calendar. The first day of Shawwal is Eid ul-Fitr. There are also six days of fasting during Shawwal which, together with the Ramadan fasts, are equivalent to fasting "perpetually" (according to Sahih Muslim). Usually, this is taken to mean the whole year. The explanation is that a good deed in islam is rewarded 10 times, hence fasting 30 days in Ramadan with 6 days in Shawwal is equivalent to fasting the whole year in terms of reward Islam online.
Shawwal means ‘lift or carry’; so named because she
camels would be carrying a fetus at this time. In this month Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alayhe Wasallam married Sayyedah Aisha,
the daughter of his commander-in-chief Abu Bakr Radi Allahu Anhu.
11. Zil - Qad or Dhu al-Qi'dah: is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. It can also be known as Thou al-Qi`dah. The meaning of the word is ‘Master of Truce’ as the pagan Arabs did not conduct war during this month.
12. Zil - Haj Dhu al-Hijja: is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. It is also known as Thou al-Hijja. This is a very sacred month in the Islamic calendar, marking the end of the year. It is in this month in which the Hajj Pilgrimage takes place.
"Dhu al-hijjah" literally means ‘Lord of the Pilgrimage.’ It is during this month that pilgrims from all around the world congregate at Makkah to visit the Kaaba. The Hajj is performed on the eighth, ninth and the tenth of this month. Eid ul-Adha, the ‘Festival of the Sacrifice,’ is held on the tenth day.